copper sulfide uses

Certain metal salts like copper sulphide and copper iodide are predominantly utilised for electrically conductive coatings on fibres, as they are easily processable using ordinary textile technology. But it is more often used to clear sewer lines of invasive tree roots, which can burst pipes and lead to costly repairs if left untreated. It is also used in manufacturing high-purity metallic copper. 8. Copper sulfides can be classified into three groups: Monosulfides, 1.6 ≤ Cu/S ≤ 2: their crystal structures consist of isolated sulfide anions that are closely related to either hcp or fcc lattices, without any direct S-S bonds. The Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox couple acts in a catalytic manner in these reactions (shown for elevated-temperature reaction conditions where the sulfur-containing product is sulfate, rather than the elemental sulfur that forms under ambient conditions): Under some conditions (especially biological leaching), elemental sulfur that forms as a reaction product can be converted to sulfuric acid: A Pourbaix diagram for the Cu–Fe–O–S system is shown in Fig. Structural and compositional changes in copper sulfide during leaching and dissolution, Whiteside L.S, Goble R.J, The Canadian Mineralogist; (1986);. Zdzisław, in Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, 2017. A variety of fibres have been used including nylon, polyester, wool and acrylic for antistatic applications such as carpets. In this example, the production of a copper concentrate is investigated. [13] This apparent discrepancy with the X-ray photo-electron spectrum data simply highlights the problem that NMR has in assigning oxidation states in a mixed-valence compound. It has the chemical compound Cu2S. uses copper sulfide, Find Quality uses copper sulfide and Buy uses copper sulfide from Reliable Global uses copper sulfide Suppliers from mobile site on Sulfide concentrate: 40% Cu, 4% Co (80% Cu recovery, 50% Co recovery). Substances containing chlorine in the equilibrium system Cu-S-Cl-H2O. 5.14. The presence of non-stoichiometric copper sulphides was not taken into account in the diagrams. Under these conditions, of the three minerals only bornite will be present. A typical structure is cell-core or side-by-side bi-component structure. Typical concentrate grades are 30% Cu (higher with chalcocite, bornite, and native copper mineralization). E–pH diagram of the Cu-S-Cl-H2O system for 100 °C, the activity of sulphur-containing substances of 10−1 M, the activity of copper-containing substances of 10−1 and 10−2 M at the unit activity of chlorides. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. /Anemia was able to be corrected/ by the addition to the diet of ash from animal or vegetable sources. Cobalt–copper sulfide ores are being exploited in several Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia mines (Katanga, 2010). The blood is teste… Very refractory minerals, such as chalcopyrite, require high temperatures and pressures to enable leaching to take place at economically viable rates (Section 15.7). Typical operating conditions for copper electrorefining cells are (Habashi 1998): 100–200 Amps m−2 at a cell voltage of 0.3 V with an electrolyte of 40 g L−1 of copper and 150–200 g l of sulfuric acid. With increasing temperature the amount of the copper complexes in the system varies. A typical benefit of the solution is markedly textile-fibre-like properties with reasonable conductivity. [11][12]. Therefore, the Me–S–Cl–H2O system is also a subject of theoretical studies, although not so frequently as the Me–S–H2O systems [72–74]. From the practical viewpoint in leaching, these equilibrium systems are used for theoretical examination of leaching of copper sulphides or copper and iron in the solutions of sulphuric acid, or using iron-sulphide, this is a relatively frequent case and is also utilised in industry, either for pressure leaching or leaching in normal conditions. The copper sulfide is oxidized by Fe3+. Extraction of Cobalt and Copper from Sulfide and Mixed Sulfide-oxide Ores. One path is as follows: In this case, at high pH (>8) and low Eh (≈−0.59…−0.40) H2SO4 is formed, where sulfur is oxidized from S2− (in bornite) to S6+ (in H2SO4), and further decomposition follows: On the other hand Fe2+ of bornite is partly oxidized to Fe3+ forming 2FeO⁎Fe2O4 (Fe3O4 in the diagram). Alternatively stainless steel cathode blanks are used as described above under Copper Electrowinning. Precious metal impurities in the anode are not oxidized at the anode potentials employed, but fall to the bottom of the cell as an “anode slime” which is occasionally harvested from the cells and sent for recovery of precious metals. [7]) give the mixed valence formula (Cu+)2(Cu2+)(S2−)(S2)2− for CuS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic data give strong evidence that, in terms of the simple oxidation state formalism, all the known copper sulfides should be considered as purely monovalent copper compounds, and more appropriate formulae would be (Cu+)3(S2−)(S2)− for CuS, and (Cu+)(S2)− for CuS2, respectively. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Table 5.8. ∗(Adham et al., 2010). Both are constructed of acid resistant concrete and contain cathodes (connected in parallel) interleaved with anodes (also connected in parallel). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Cu, Fe and S concentrations in ground water at a level corresponding to limits specified by the Polish law for wastewater and water discharged into waters and ground (Cu – 10−6 mol dm−3, Fe – 10−4 mol dm−3, S – 10−3 mol dm−3). Copper sulfides describe a family of chemical compounds and minerals with the formula CuxSy. In dump leaching, the pH of the solution is maintained between 1.5 and 3.0, partly to preserve bacteria that promote and accelerate the oxidation of purity and copper sulfate minerals and also to prevent hydrolysis of iron salts. Precious metal impurities in the anode are not oxidized, at the anode potentials employed, but fall to the bottom of the cell as an ‘anode slime’ which is occasionally harvested from the cells and sent for recovery of precious metals. Different stoichiometric compositions can be obtained by changing the redox atmosphere of the synthetic environment. Column flotation cleaner cells are particularly effective at giving a high Cu grade in the concentrate. The anodes are electrolytically refined in cells sketched in Fig. Fig. The anodes are dissolved to the point at which they start to fall apart. The residuum is removed from the cell and re-melted/cast into fresh anodes and these are placed in the cell. Estimated flotation stage recoveries, feed mass flow rates and global recovery goals. One typical series of reactions that occur under oxidizing conditions and at high temperatures is shown below: FIGURE 15.4. The principal difference lies in what occurs at the anodes: oxygen evolution at the electrowinning anodes, dissolution of copper (the reverse of reaction 1) at the electrorefining anodes. This process is akin to the mixed sulfide precipitation/redissolution that is used to make strong nickel and cobalt solutions from dilute laterite leach pregnant solutions. For instance, anhydrous copper sulfate can be used as a dehumidifying agent. The product is electrowon cobalt metal, 99.65–99.7% Co. Cobalt recovery from concentrate to metal is ~62%. The naturally occurring mineral binary compounds of copper and sulfur are listed below. FIGURE 30.7. In addition to the iron sulphate, iron chloride is also used as an oxidation agent, especially because it is a far more efficient leaching agent than the sulphate. The anodes are dissolved to the point at which they start to fall apart. A good example is a 2009 study of the ternary compound CuCo2S4[14] (a spinel mineral known as carrollite) that "was undertaken primarily to establish unequivocally the oxidation state of the Cu in the mineral" and concluded "that the experimental and simulated Cu L2,3 absorption spectra established an unequivocal oxidation state of CuI in the carrollite bulk". Product Name: Copper Iron Sulfide Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. On-stream particle size and on-stream X-ray fluorescence analyses are key components of this automatic control. The flotation is made selective by using reagents, which make the Cu-sulfide minerals water-repellant (hydrophobic) while leaving the other minerals wetted (hydrophilic). Both minerals and synthetic materials comprise these compounds. Seek medical attention. Eng.,19', 204 (2006). Copper sulfide ores must be concentrated before they can be economically transported and smelted. CuS, for example, can be written as Cu3(S2)S. Several nonstoichiometric compounds with Cu:S ratios between 1.0 and 1.4 also contain both monosulfide as well as disulfide ions. The issue of the valence of copper in sulfides (as well as selenides and tellurides) continues to be revisited in the literature. TABLE 30.5. General Measures: Remove patient from area of exposure. This substance is mainly used as a pesticide in agricultural or nonagricultural practices to help eliminate bacteria, algae, roots, plants, snails and fungi. Elemental copper found in nature can be leached by either oxygen or ferric ion: All copper sulfides require the presence of Fe3+ and O2 as oxidizing agents for leaching to occur. Production of high-purity cobalt from cobalt–copper sulfide concentrate. Copper /is/ essential for erythropoiesis in rats fed a milk-based diet. In electroplating processes. W. G. Mumme, R. W. Gable, V. Petříček, Canadian Mineralogist; (2012); 50; 423-430. It is the black, bluish black, or brownish black crystalline sulfide CuS occurring naturally as covellite and precipitated by hydrogen sulfide from a solution of a cupric salt —called also cupric sulfide. Ingredient: Copper (I) Sulfide. 4 FIRST AID MEASURES. Details of Industrial Leaching of Copper–Cobalt Sulfate Roaster Calcine, Figure 30.7∗. The starting solution is solvent extraction raffinate, containing approximately 7 g/L Co. Advance electrolyte is prepared from the raffinate by purification, precipitation of cobalt hydroxide then redissolution of the cobalt hydroxide in recycle spent electrolyte from cobalt sulfate electrowinning. The input is high-purity cobalt sulfate electrolyte ~20 g/L Co2+. Copper Sulfide is a crystalline solid used as a semiconductor and in photo optic applications. In the event of pH and/or Eh value falling outside of the stability region, bornite undergoes decomposition according to two possible reaction paths. 3. Table 1. Species diagrams should be applied to these purposes, as discussed later. CuS is a moderate conductor of electricity. 5.14. Note the sulfate roasting, the precipitation of cobalt hydroxide and the redissolution of the cobalt hydroxide followed by cobalt electrowinning. Adjacent cells are connected in series and several hundred cells would be contained in a typical electrorefining tankhouse. In addition, the majority of its members are semiconductors. Copper sulfate CuSO 4 found its application in various fields of human activity. Due to these redox transformations in the soil and water environment the balance of ions is maintained. CAS#: 1317-40-4 %: 100. The copper ions are distributed in a complicated manner over interstitial sites with both trigonal as well as distorted tetrahedral coordination and are rather mobile. E–pH diagram of the Cu–S–Cl–H2O system at 25, 100 and 150 °C, the activity of sulphur-containing substances is equal to 10−1 M, the activity of copper- containing substances of 10−6 M and the unit activity of chlorides and the total pressure of 0.1 MPa. The iceman's hair contained high levels of the toxin arsenic, which may indicate the man was exposed to the element during copper … INHALATION: Remove to fresh air, keep warm and quiet, give oxygen if breathing is difficult. Investigations of covellite (CuS) indicate that there are other metastable Cu-S phases still to be fully characterised.[1]. The maximum number of stages was determined based on the estimated stage recoveries and the bounds on global recoveries, which resulted in three cleaner stages and one scavenger stage. Prominent copper sulfide minerals include Cu2S and CuS. However, even though the use of seawater in mineral process Deposition of slags of the presented mineral composition in the environment may produce certain effects in surface and/or ground waters. Expert control systems help to optimize the performance of flotation plants. The activity of copper-containing substances in the solution is 10−3 M and the activity of sulphur-containing substances is equal to 10−1 M at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Copper sulfate is used in the preparation of Paris green, to kill mosquito larvae that cause malaria. This is cast into slab-like anodes. Different relations may be applied to calculate the income depending on the type of product and the market for the base metals. Preparation of Advance Electrolyte for Cobalt Electrowinning∗. Siew Wei Goh, Buckley A.N., Lamb R.N: Copper(II) sulfide?, Min. After mineralogical examination, we decided to divide the ore into four species for characterization: Cp (100% CuFeS 2 ), CpPy (95% CuFeS 2 - 5% FeS 2 ), PyAs (70% FeS 2 - 30% AsFeS), and Sc (100% SiO2). Therefore, it appears that the application of E–pH diagrams to chloride systems is more complicated than in the case of the sulphate systems owing to the fact that the chloride form a large number of species, electropositive, electronegative and electroneutral. Purchased in the form of small white or dyed blue crystals, this commonly found product can be used to clear potentially harmful algae out of ponds, lakes, and pools. Major uses: Preparation of Bordeaux and Burgundy mixtures for use as fungicides: Manufacture of other copper fungicides such as copper-lime dust, tribasic: copper sulphate, copper carbonate and cuprous oxide: Manufacture of insecticides such as copper arsenite and Paris green: Control of fungus diseases (see Table B) Correction of copper deficiency in soils Evans, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2003. Pourbaix diagram of the Cu–Fe–S–O–H2O system at 25 °C. Leaching systems using copper chloride as an oxidation agent are also being introduced. If at room temperature the highest stability was shown by CuCl32−(aq), at higher temperatures it is CuCl2−(aq). Cooled roaster calcine (~75°C) is leached in aqueous sulfuric acid solution to give a leach sulfate solution of ~22 g/L Cu and 7 g/L Co. In this example, the production of a copper concentrate is investigated. 25 °C – pH=5.7÷9.2 (∆pH=3.5); Eh=−0.56÷−0.31 (∆Eh=0.25). Industrial Cobalt Electrowinning Details∗. −5 °C – pH=6.1÷11.0 (∆pH=4.9); Eh=−0.59÷−0.29 (∆Eh=0.30). The presence of pyrites in many ore deposits, and its reaction with water and oxygen to form iron sulfate and sulfuric acid, creates an important source of acid. Mixed monosulfide and disulfide compounds of copper contain both monosulfide (S2−) as well as disulfide (S2)n− anions. Frank K. Crundwell, ... William G. Davenport, in Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals, 2011. Typical operating conditions for copper electrorefining cells are (Habashi, 1998): 100–200 A m-2 at a cell voltage of 0.3 Vwith an electrolyte of 40 g l-1 of copper and 150–200 g l-1 of sulfuric acid. Etching - Copper sulfate is also used to etch zinc plates for intaglio printmaking. Salts, acid derivatives, and peroxides of sulfate are widely used in industry. Copper disulfide is a metallic conductor due to the incomplete occupancy of the sulfur p band. 1. Interspersed copper anodes and cathodes are suspended in an electrolyte. Antifungal agent for topical use 4. The stability of bornite is determined by a relatively narrow range of pH values and very narrow range of Eh values, nearly irrespective of the seasonal temperature (Figure 2): Figure 2. pH–Eh diagrams for Cu–Fe–S–H2O system. Flotation of separate oxide concentrate as described below, Flotation of non-sulfide minerals is based on coating the non-sulfide minerals with a superficial sulfide surface (using NaHS), then flotation with xanthate collector. The use of copper dates back more than 10,000 years. Copper sulfate is an inorganic compound that combines sulfur with copper that has been registered for use in the United States since 1956. Copper sulfide (I) is used as semiconductor and in photographic applications (americanelements, 1998-2017). There is a resemblance to the cell of Figure 7. Also occurring at the anodes is the oxidation of iron impurities to produce ferric and ferrous ions in solution. Fig. General Measures: Remove patient from area of exposure. It is designed to give soluble sulfate calcine rather that insoluble oxide calcine. High-purity cobalt metal is electrowon from cobalt sulfate electrolyte. Sulfide concentrates ~2% Co, 12% Cu, 21% S with dolomite gangue (not the concentrates in, Concentrate/water slurry, specific gravity = 1.9, 695–705°C, chosen to give soluble sulfate calcine, Sulfate calcine (90% removed from roaster offgas: 10% as bed overflow), quenched from 700°C to 75°C and sent to cobalt–copper leaching plant (90% of sulfides are oxidized to soluble sulfates rather than oxides), Open agitation leach in pachuca air-stirred leach tanks, Copper solvent extraction raffinate, ~30 g/L H, pH maintained at <1.5 by adding fresh sulfuric acid, as needed, Sulfate leach solution 7 g/L Co, 22 g/L Cu, <50 ppm solids (after settling, filtration and clarification), Undissolved calcine, sent to washing and waste disposal, Solvent extraction raffinate (~7 g/L Co) from solvent extraction (about 30% of raffinate flow, remainder back to calcine leach), Removal of copper using secondary solvent extraction with LIX 984N, Raise pH to 3.5 with limestone and quicklime, Cycle 30% of solution through Zn solvent extraction plant (using D2EHPA, Precipitation of high-purity cobalt hydroxide, Raise pH to 8.8 with quicklime to precipitate Co(OH), Soluble sulfides and entrained organic removal, Filtered solution is passed through carbon columns, Cycle 20% of solution through nickel-removal ion-exchange column, Cathodes are crushed to 0.02 m × 0.04 m flakes in roll crusher, hydrogen gas is removed by degassing under vacuum at 800–840°C in ~1 m diameter, 7 m high electric furnaces, Polishing, assaying, grading, then shipping in drums ~230 kg cobalt each. Copper sulfide is a crystalline solid used as a semiconductor and in photo optic applications. These methods are called leach-precipitation-flotation and are applied to mixed sulfide ores. Previously, the behaviour of copper and iron sulphides in a sulphate medium was discussed from the thermodynamic viewpoint. Typical Cu sulfide recoveries to concentrate are 85–90%. Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid. Most of us realize that mining sulfide ores to source copper threatens clean water and public health. 15.4. Oxidation of iron impurities also occurs at the anodes to produce ferric and ferrous ions in solution. In order to determine these effects, detailed simulations of the behavior of the main mineral component of the metallic inclusions in the slag, i.e., cubanite, were carried out. [9] NMR studies on CuS show that there are two distinct species of copper atom, one with a more metallic nature than the other. TABLE 30.4. Treatment of copper deficiency 5. Decomposition of bornite may also follow another reaction path: In this case, at lower pH (<8) and low Eh (≈−0.40…−0.35) H2SO3 is formed, where sulfur is oxidized from S2− (in bornite) to S4+ (in H2SO3), and further decomposition follows: Copper, for its part, is reduced (bornite contains both Cu2+ and Cu+) to Cu+, whereas iron does not change its valence, as Fe2+ ions are formed. Oxide concentrate: 20% Cu, 1.3% Co (60% Cu recovery, 40% Co recovery). Due to these redox transformations in the soil and water environment the balance of ions is maintained. Both minerals and synthetic materials comprise these compounds. Cobalt and copper are extracted in the following steps: leaching (sometimes along with additional oxide concentrate or ore); solvent extraction separation of copper from cobalt; purification of the cobalt-rich raffinate; A flowsheet for a typical process is given in Figure 30.7 and operating details are given in Tables 30.2–30.6. Precipitation with MgO and redissolution produces cobalt-rich, high-purity electrolyte. 4 FIRST AID MEASURES. This table describes concentrate production. Copper sulfide finds applications in the following: Solar cells; Superionic conductors; Photodetectors; Electroconductive electrodes; Photothermal conversion devices; Microwave shielding coating; Active absorbents of radio waves; Gas sensors; Polarizers of infrared radiation; Chemical Properties. Flotation is commonly used to concentrate copper sulfide minerals, such as chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2). Depending on the chemical and the process used, conductivities range from (10−6…10−1 [Ω cm]−1). In the mining industry, the minerals bornite or chalcopyrite, which consist of mixed copper-iron sulfides, are often referred to as … TABLE 30.3. Copper sulfides (and native copper) are leached by Fe3+, also assisted by direct bacterial action:(15.11a)2FeS2+7O2+2H2O→2Fe2++2SO42−+2H2SO4(15.11b)O2+4Fe2++4SO42−+2H2SO4→4Fe3++6SO42−+2H2O(15.11c)Cu2S+10Fe3++15SO42−+4H2O→2Cu2++10Fe2++12SO42−+4H2SO4, From: Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (Fifth Edition), 2011, Mark E. Schlesinger, ... William G. Davenport, in Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (Fifth Edition), 2011. Consequently, the stability region of bornite in the summer season (25 °C) will be narrower than in the winter season, as the ranges ∆pH and ∆Eh decrease with rising temperature in the series of −5, 5 and 25 °C. Whatever their source, copper sulfides vary widely in composition with 0.5 ≤ Cu/S ≤ 2, including numerous non-stoichiometric compounds. On the other hand, copper (II) sulfide finds applications in solar cells, superionic conductors, photodetectors, electroconductive electrodes, photothermal conversion devices, microwave protective coating, active radio wave absorbers, gas sensors and radiation polarizer… Principal impurities are iron and precious metals (gold and silver). Felipe D. Sepulveda, ... Edelmira D. Gálvez, in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 2012. Fume cupboard, Bunsen burner, retort stand, boss and clamp (steel/iron), heat-proof mat and tongs; The bounds on global recovery for each species and income are the defined goals. Dyes - Copper sulfate can also be used as a mordant in vegetable dyeing. A black colloidal precipitate of CuS is formed when hydrogen sulfide, H 2 S, is bubbled through solutions of Cu(II) salts. Principal impurities are iron and precious metals (gold and silver). Research done by Havlik (2008) and others (Peters, 1977) has demonstrated that cubanite is not stable in a hypergenic environment and in the presence of water and oxygen is converted at a fast rate into chalcopyrite according to reaction equation: whereas the formed chalcopyrite in the same environment will undergo further conversion into bornite according to reaction equation: Bornite is a more stable copper and iron sulphide in a hypergenic environment than cubanite and chalcopyrite.
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