lake origin and classification

By solving the logistic regression equation with the predicted odds ratio of the logit = 0.5, we determined that the lake surface area at which there was an equal probability that a lake would either be called Lake Name or Name Lake occurred at 1100 km2 (lakes larger than this size represent 0.00004% of lakes globally in the Downing et al. The hypothesised relationship between lake nomenclature and U.S. settlement and colonisation history is more complicated, requiring a simultaneous understanding of settlement patterns by European colonists, as well as the hereditary relationships of the dominant immigrant languages. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. After early forays by the Spanish, Jean Ribault created the French colony of Charlesfort in 1562 in a region he called Carolana, both named for King Charles IX of France. 2b), contrary to our expectations, although Name Lakes were more common overall. It was formed by tectonic activity. Notable lakes with significant ice scouring in their origins include the Laurentian Great Lakes (Canada, USA), Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake (Canada), the fjord lakes in Norway, several lakes in the English Lake District (Figure 1), Lago Maggiore (Italy), Lac Leman (France, Switzerland), Lake Te Anau (New Zealand), and innumerable small lakes carved in the pre-Cambrian shield in Canada and … We thank many supportive colleagues for initiating and contributing to the catalyst of this work. Wular lake (Jammu & Kashmir) is the largest freshwater lake in India. The Laurentian Great Lakes were excluded, and there were no consistently available accompanying data in any of these lists on lake morphometry or geographical coordinates. 1. The dominance of different Canadian provinces by either English or French settlement provided an excellent opportunity for comparing lake nomenclature patterns in another country in North America. In addition to the continental analyses, we compared the prevalence of Lake Names versus Name Lakes among Level III EPA ecoregions and states (Fig. Of the 814 U.S. ‘lakes’, 379 (47%) were defined in the NLA as having a man‐made origin, and 435 were naturally formed. Formed by dissolution of soluble rock (often limestone) by percolating water. Because there were only two Irish lakes matching our criteria in the U.K. Lake Portal dataset, we used the List of loughs of Ireland (; accessed 12 April 2016) for Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. This web page shows only a small excerpt of our lake research. This relationship was primarily driven by lakes in Scotland, the only country that individually exhibited a significant relationship between lake nomenclature and lake size (χ2 = 25.62, P < 0.0001; all other countries had P ≥ 0.09). Analysis of available databases of lake nomenclature in Europe and Canada suggests that these geographical shifts in lake names may be due to the main European colonist source countries that settled these regions, with Lake Name predominating in countries where Gaelic and Romance linguistic influences were strongest. There was a Germanic form of the PIE root which yielded Old Norse lögr "sea flood, water," Old English lacu "stream, pool, pond," lagu "sea flood, water, extent of the sea," leccan "to moisten" (see leak (v.)). In Middle English, lake, as a descendant of the Old English word, also could mean "stream; river gully; ditch; marsh; grave; pit of hell," and this might have influenced the form of the borrowed word. There are several type, kinds and categories of lakes in the world. Our examination of lake nomenclature across the continental U.S.A. generally supported our hypotheses. They are usually found in low lying areas and are fed from streams, rivers and runoff from the surrounding area. We observed significant effects of latitude and longitude on the likelihood of lake nomenclature. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, and therefore are distinct from lagoons, and are also larger and deeper than ponds. Finally, in the other dominant Germanic ‘West Teutonic’ language (German), the word for lake ‘See’ almost always comes second (e.g., Müggelsee), as in English‐speaking Great Britain, where Name Lake also dominates. This was about 32% of all the recorded Lake's in the USA. Learn more. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, The Best and Worst Country in the World: Perspectives on the Early Virginia Landscape, Applications of the NHD at the U.S. environmental protection agency, The global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments, Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History, Vol. In 1840 there were 239 Lake families living in New York. The chemical-biological changes within a lake’s history offer a fine example of ecological succession. For example, we expected that lakes in regions that were originally settled by English immigrants (e.g., New England) should thus reflect the predominant naming patterns in England. A Data Lake is a storage repository that can store large amount of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data. Data Exploration. Such terms do not appear to have not carried over to the naming of U.S. lakes, at least as can be inferred from the NLA waterbodies. The common notion is "basin.". The continental lake nomenclature relationships exhibited significant differences among ecoregions (Fig. Québec's high proportion of Lake Names in comparison to the other provinces dominated by English settlers further supports our colonisation hypothesis in another region of North America. A lake is a large body of natural water accumulated in a depression. Generally, the early Celts consisted of two dominant language groups: Britton and Gaelic (McBain, 1911). Among U.S. states, we observed highly variable patterns (Fig. 15 The simplest classification is the dimension of a lake. This classification recognizes 11 major lake types that are divided into 76 subtypes. We developed a series of hypotheses that could be narrowed down to one overarching one: nomenclature of U.S. lakes reflects an interaction of settlement history and origin and lake size. Generally, with the exception of Connecticut and Vermont, the other New England states (Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire) behaved as expected, with their waterbodies dominated by Name Lakes, as in England. Fluvial lakes. Classification suggests that When all potential logistic regression models were compared, the best model explaining lake nomenclature at the continental scale incorporated both ln‐transformed lake surface area and state predictor variables (Table 1). An interesting peripheral result of our examination of waterbodies in Great Britain and Ireland is that a wide variety of English and Celtic terms exist for lakes that may relate to their nomenclature order. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: What Is in a “Lake” Name? Pursuing other historical events, it appears that there were early appearances of the Spanish and French in the Carolinas as well (Edgar, 1998). 2d). There is, however, a lack of consensus on definitions used to distinguish between lakes and ponds. When ice sheets moved over flat rock surface with weakened areas of fissures, the rock could splinter and loosen to form the basin of “glac… Lakes with a larger surface area are more imposing and impressive to a human standing on their beaches, and perhaps more likely to be named Lake Name than Name Lake. About 100 lakes throughout the State have been monitored at this level by the USGS since mid-1980. Aggregated together, Scotland, Ireland and Wales had up to an order of magnitude more Lake Names than Name Lakes (Table 2). Across the U.S.A., lakes with larger surface areas were more likely to have a Lake Name, but there was no significant relationship between nomenclature and maximum depth. Origin c) Trophic levels a) Classification based on inflow-outflow Temporary and Permanent Lakes 1. 1969 Chardonnay first planted. The colony's name later stuck when the conveniently named King Charles I of England took over in 1629. Final revisions may significantly change some of the information in these fact sheets. Inclusion of these lakes would, thus, have reduced the apparent strict nomenclature concluded for New Hampshire based on colonisation, and instead follow the lake size pattern we also observed. As a melting pot of cultures, the U.S.A. is a classic case of linguistic mélange, evident in the way its people have come to refer to its waterbodies. Differences in state sizes and number of lakes per state likely account for some this variation. These results support the contention relating much of lake nomenclature to linguistic history, but that where linguistic flexibility occurs (Ireland, Scotland and Wales), lake size is also an important feature of naming patterns. New York had the highest population of Lake families in 1840. Before excluding them, we noted that 100% of all ponds and reservoirs in the NLA had the naming convention of Name Pond or Name Reservoir. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Biological Sciences and Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et en Environnement Aquatique (GRIL), University of Quebec at Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, U.S.A. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Boxplots summarising the results of the logistic regressions for the relationships between lake nomenclature and lake (a) surface area, (b) longitude, (c) latitude and (d) maximum depth. Icag, territory or district. The Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Salt Lake were excluded from the NLA sampling programme, as were waterbodies not classified as lakes (e.g., swamps) in the U.S. National Hydrography Dataset (NHD; Dewald, 2006). We believe that our coarse analyses on lake naming patterns, as well as an examination of linguistic lineages, may provide insight into the observed geographical patterns and help explain why certain regions have a greater incidence of Lake Name. Given the increasing amount of lake information available in national databases (e.g., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Lakes Assessment), the last time we embarked on this discussion with each other, it seemed a propitious moment to confront this question of lake nomenclature directly with data. A lake is a body of water of considerable size, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land apart from a river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Within the global hydrologic cycle, freshwater lakes constitute only about 0.009 percent of all free water, which amounts to less than 0.4 percent of all continental fresh water. 1966 The first vintage, truly hand (and feet) made. Our primary driver variables were lake surface area, maximum depth, latitude, and longitude; lake surface area and maximum depth were ln‐transformed to meet assumptions of normality and equal variance. Louisiana, which was settled as a colony of France in the late 1600s before being ceded to Spain in 1763, is unsurprisingly also one of the heaviest users of Lake Name. 16. By contrast, British Columbia, a province heavily dominated by English settlers, exhibited only 4% of its lakes as having a Lake Name, and no other province exhibited over 25% of lakes with Lake Name. North American lakes in the U.S.A. (and Canada) do not have the naming consistency of lakes in England, Spain, France or Germany because of the mixed influence of these various countries with different conventions. We note that there are several issues with this analysis that may influence our results. The total number of lakes, full ecoregion names and their locations are shown in Fig. We had to exclude 61 of these lakes because no names were listed, or only a proper name was listed without specifying the order of ‘lake’ and the name of waterbody. The patterns in English lake names remained to be verified, but as we listed the English lakes we knew, they mostly seemed to use Name Lake (including Windermere, for which ‘mere’ means inland sea, derived from the French ‘mer’). Regardless of lake origin, we observed the same significant relationship between lake area and lake nomenclature. The rationale for the naming of lakes has often puzzled limnologists. Examining naming patterns by EPA ecoregion and by state revealed that Lake Names were more common in the southern states and along the eastern seaboard, regardless of their surface area. There were significant differences in naming convention among provinces (likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 439.84, P < 0.0001), which was largely driven by French‐speaking Québec, where 89% of the lakes had a Lake Name. 4). The final list consisted of 3468 lakes. 1, A Referenced Based Typology and Ecological Assessment System for Irish Lakes – Preliminary Investigations, The Backcountry Towns of Colonial Virginia, The development of a GIS‐based inventory of standing waters in Great Britain together with a risk‐based prioritization protocol, An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, Survey design and extent estimates for the National Lakes Assessment, History of South Dakota: Fourth Edition, Revised, Lake shoreline in the contiguous United States: quantity, distribution and sensitivity to observation resolution. If you are uncertain about the classification of a lake or river and the dimensional standards that apply, contact your local planning and zoning office. p° LAKE. Across Great Britain and Ireland, all lakes >1435 ha were Lake Name, regardless of which country the lakes were located. 1963 Cabernet planted by Max Lake’s family and friends. (2004). Finally, our expectation of lake name convention based on the origin of European settlement was largely substantiated by a comparison of lakes across Canada for which only name information by province was readily available. 4), with highly significant differences in lake nomenclature (likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 117.75, P < 0.0001). Why several parts of the Eastern seaboard – in particular, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and Connecticut, as well as scattered states in the central U.S.A. – use Lake Name is less immediately clear. "to play, sport," Old English lacan (see lark (n.2)). The first classical work with a specific focus on the study of lake forms, describing their genesis and role in a broad limnological perspective, was Limnological Methods by Welch ().The source of morphometric data quantifying the size and form of lakes is the bathymetric map and such maps are today generally derived from echosounding, a technique that became more widely used after 1948. lake morphology . The full text of this article hosted at is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Lakes such as Carlos and Miltona are in the General Development classification. Our final dataset consisted of 814 waterbodies named lakes. We conclude that there is evidence for lakes to have a Lake Name syntax in English when they have a larger surface area, or when they occur in a region where the Gaelic forms of English, as well as the Romance Languages, have had a significant influence. We thank the Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie et en Environnement Aquatique (GRIL) at UQAM for financing CCC's trip to Montréal to give a seminar, making the discussion possible. Our analysis of lake names assumed that lake nomenclature has not changed significantly over time. "deep red coloring matter," 1610s, from French laque (15c., see lac), from which it was obtained. To test our hypothesis on settlement origin in North America, we also examined a list of 1722 Canadian lakes obtained from Wikipedia ( using click‐throughs to provincial sites (accessed 13 September 2015). (2006) meta‐analysis). While each lake is unique and deserving of an individual management plan, it is impractical and unrealistic for broad units of government to strive to manage all lakes individually. Unlike France and Spain, where Lake Name (Lac Nom or Lago Nombre, respectively), is always used due to linguistic convention, there was much more variability in lake nomenclature in Great Britain and Ireland. Lake Baikal Seal Many a discussion among limnologists or with a member of the general public has at some point turned to the subject of why the names of some lakes in North America start with Lake, followed by their name (i.e., Lake Name), such as Lake Sunapee, while many others are reversed (i.e., Name Lake), such as Trout Lake. Of the 1722 lakes on the Canadian list, 410 (24%) had a Lake Name and the remaining 1312 (76%) had a Name Lake, similar to the ratio observed in the NLA dataset. Next in line are Recreational Development lakes such as Chippewa and Lobster. These latitudinal and longitudinal relationships remained significant even after the effects of lake surface area were controlled for in multiple logistic regression models that included both predictors. The grinding weight and pressure of encroaching and retreating ice sheets carved many depressions in the Earth’s surface, where melting ice then collected to form lakes. Thus, we hypothesised that the varied lake nomenclature across North America may also result from the languages of the different major colonising groups from Europe. Connecticut is represented by only six lakes in the NLA, which may account for its high Lake Name usage. 1964 A-frame erected, later to become the vineyard logo. 1). Lake Classification Fact Sheet Series For years NR 115 (the rule that governs shoreline zoning) has been going through a public process for revision. For all the U.K. lakes, we used the same criteria as for the U.S. lakes: i.e., waterbodies had to be >4 ha in size, with ponds and reservoirs excluded. There is also documented French Huguenot and Acadian immigration into the Carolinas, with South Carolina having the largest French population of the 13 original colonies (Edgar, 1998). The Lake family name was found in the USA, the UK, Canada, and Scotland between 1840 and 1920. These states were largely settled by English colonists, and the lake naming convention likely followed the standards observed in their country of origin. This appears to be partially related to lake size in these regions, as in the U.S.A., but also to the use of Lake Name in Gaelic and their related European languages. Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a widely accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. Lake area was a significant predictor of a lake's name: as lakes increased in size, the likelihood of being called Lake Name significantly increased (predicted logit = −1.55(±0.10) + 0.29(±0.05) × ln (lake area); Χ2 = 43.06, P < 0.0001; Fig. Lake nomenclature in Great Britain and Ireland appears to be related to the etymology of the predominant languages spoken, despite the linguistic dilution that likely occurred through trade and invasions by other linguistic groups, including the Vikings, Romans, Saxons and Normans. Salt LakesSalt Lake is an inland … Rhode Island was not represented in the 814 lake NLA dataset. All waterbodies included in the NLA were permanent freshwater lakes, reservoirs or ponds with a surface area >4 ha and a maximum depth ≥1 m (Peck et al., 2013). Okauchee Lake in Waukesha County is an example of a lake in this study type with long-term data.
lake origin and classification 2021